The problem can be made worse, still, if the device automatically changes modes sometimes. He mentions verbal slips - which are routinely experienced when people are attempting to speak too rapidly, or utter a phrase that requires a bit of lingual acrobatics, and end up saying the wrong word or even garbling a phrase. A bad system enables and even encourages users to do things that create errors - or provides no clear indication of what is expected of the user, or which places too much burden on the user to know or learn. In many organizations, the troubleshooting team has no ability to inform the design team - which ensures flaws are perpetuated. Did the user fail to notice a problem, or did the device fail to alert them to it? People insist on performing activities when they are physically unable to do so. Even though the two were in different rooms, there was enough similarity that when the student removed a garment near something round and white, he reflexively tossed it in. The author suggests that the more people will check and inspect work after it is done, the less attentive a worker will be because he does not bear responsibility for the outcome. Consider the case of speeding: people will drive faster than the posted limit when they do not believe that the limit is reasonable. In the workplace, rules and procedures often become far more convoluted than necessary. However, much of the conversation is nonverbal. If we base our analysis on what happened in the past, we will give undue weight to improbable scenarios that rarely occur. The author speaks a bit wistfully of artificial intelligence and expert systems - as it has long been a goal to provide assistance to novices (or more aptly, to take away the task of thinking of a solution from them), but there are no particularly good examples of how this has actually been accomplished for complex tasks. The moral to the story is that people generally assume that they have done the right thing and are proceeding on track to the right destination - and when confronted with signs that they are headed in the wrong direction, they assume the signs are wrong and continue on their merry way. But even when they are, many people are anxious about making errors (or reporting the errors of others) because they fear being punished or ridiculed. I just finished reading the design of everyday things and there were so many important lessons from the book that I had to write a summary and record what I learned. The Design of Everyday Things. He explained some core principles that can be followed to make more human-centered designed products. Critical to making devices more intelligent is in making them conversational - giving them the ability to interpret what users want, and to communicate and react to them with some consideration of the way in which they are naturally inclined to act, including the possibility they may be inclined to do things when they wish to achieve that goal. To roll through a red light because it's 2 am and there are no other cars on the road, or to speed because they are late for an appointment. HOME > STUDIES > READING NOTES > Design of Everyday Things > Chapter 2. Consider the scanners at grocery stores that "beep" as each item is properly scanned - were it not for that sound, cashiers would have to lock their gaze on the display to make sure items are scanned properly. People believe themselves to be invulnerable - they recognize risk but feel it will never happen to them, or underestimate the risk for much the same reason. The author tells an anecdote of a family trip in which they took a wrong turn and ended up on a highway that went to Las Vegas rather than to their destination. Errors are not always the result of neglecting to do things according to the instructions, but can also arise when people deliberately ignore the instructions. Engineers want to control the people who use their devices, controlling and directing their every action as if they were part of the machine. You must plan for contingencies. I am so bad at mechanical things." Why did the pilot fail to initiate the recovery procedure? “Key Takeaways from The Design of Everyday Things : Chapter 3” is published by Sherry Lin. Start studying The Design of Everyday Things - Ch. When asked what went wrong, they are at a loss to describe exactly what went wrong. A mode error occurs when a device has different states of operation and the user does not observe (or makes an assumption) about the mode in which the device is presently set. Additionally, there is pressure in many workplaces to avoid or diminish errors, which increases the incentive to deny or cover up. While many engineers prefer to stop with "the user did something wrong" the truth is that the machine generally encouraged him to do something wrong, or failed to provide sufficient indication of what he should have done that would have been right. They are afraid that if they accept the blame for an error, there may be fired or sued or punished in some other way. Many accidents are caused because multiple things went wrong at the same time - and while the designers may have taken care to provide a remedy if one or another thing happened, they did not consider how a person might be able to react if both happened at the same time. For the sake of thorough design, the author advocates making the assumption that people are never at fault for accidents and failures, and to accept that the design is responsible for facilitating success and preventing failure. One significant problem is that engineers are simply looking to scapegoat human beings for flaws in their design. Norman, Donald A. This is the reason that failures are so difficult to prepare for in automated systems, and why recovery takes a significant amount of time. An update on his 1988 book, The Psychology of Everyday Things, this book continues on the themes of designing for human imperfection and imprecision with new examples. (EN: The distinction seems a bit dodgy to me. The same is true of services. Some constraints are merely to make it more difficult to do something incorrect. When errors can be recognized and diagnosed, devices and processes can be improved by implementing changes that will decrease errors in future. (EN: It's for the same reason many people will switch off the radio when driving in dangerous conditions - to prevent being distracted.). Where rules or long or elaborate, the user cannot recall the right rule to follow when it becomes necessary - whether they forget the rule or the situation in which it should be applied. He also notes that there is a sense of personal pride in professional work, and being made to conform to a checklist is seen as demeaning - that they are for "other people ... but not me." The potential is a great deal more concerning when there's much at stake: if landing a plane or performing a surgery is automated, such that pilots and doctors forget how to do these tasks, what happens when the machine breaks down? His long and rambling consideration of this boils down to a few key points: In general, a person who has the knowledge and skill to perform a task, who takes adequate time and gives adequate attention, and who follows established procedures for working safely and efficiently, is highly unlikely to be the cause of an error. There is some indication that those who build machines should take responsibility, largely in consumer lawsuits. Where the rule is written in convoluted language, often to provide specificity, it becomes so complicated that users cannot possibly understand what it actually means. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Guess what they do," is a line a machine "tells" the user simply by having three buttons. Knowledge-based behavior tends to follow a trial-and-error pattern - and as such any mistakes an individual makes are simply "errors" that seemed to be plausible actions, but which turned out to be unproductive in accomplishing his desired goal. The author muses on the topic of checklists, which he feels to be powerful tools in guiding users because the presence of a checklist enables them to remember the steps in a task and the items in the list provide the opportunity to provide details and instructions. Unfortunately, people do not, and in some instances cannot, give their undivided attention to a device. The Design of Everyday Things: 1988-2038. Rules Based. But the author feels that this is terribly wrong. Safety procedures for the pyrotechnics were followed to the letter (the procedures did not account for the low ceiling and acoustic tiles), exits were locked (standard procedure to keep people from leaving without paying their tabs), and the staff followed procedures that did not account for an emergency situation. This kind of behavior tends to be slow and methodical, with a great deal of conscious thinking and contemplation. Does it matter whether I forgot five minutes or five seconds before I should have done something?) Worse still, they may be rewarded or see someone else rewarded for behavior that accomplished results by breaking rules. Here is a brief summary of the changes, chapter by chapter. A simple task becomes very complex when the user is made to behave in an unusual or seemingly unnecessary manner to avoid an accident that occurs only in rare situations. This is particularly problematic for emergency procedures, as emergencies very seldom happen and, when they do, the rules have been forgotten. The author encourages designers to regard these situations as contingencies, not as errors, and help users to do what is necessary to achieve their goals. Unfortunately, the standard practice of blaming the user has led people to attempt to cover up their errors, deny them, or at least not admit them and hope no-one else notices. Rules are written by people who have knowledge, to convey it to those who do not.). The author also mentions the age-old concern that automation makes people dumber. Complexity is another problem with rules-based procedures. Part 2 — The Design of Everyday Things (Revised & Expanded Edition) — Book Summary & Key Points. There may have been several things that could have been done differently to avoid the accident - and there may be several things that need to be corrected to avoid it from happening again. He has to see several malfunctions before he will accept that there is something wrong with the equipment and what he witnessed was not merely a temporary glitch in the system. Users may work around these limitations, but this gives rise to memory-lapse errors. A memory-based mistake is similar to a memory slip - but instead of failing to do the right thing, the person takes a wrong action believing it to be right. When this happens, the rules may be incomprehensible, or they will be forgotten, or they will simply be ignored. Action Slips. SUMMARY: The Design of Everyday Things: Revised Edition | Chapter-by-Chapter Review and Summation - NOT ORIGINAL BOOK The Design of Everyday Things is a powerful primer on how—and why—some products satisfy customers while others only frustrate them. Never mind that backfiring cars are extremely rare, but it seems like a more plausible explanation of a loud sound. Design of Everyday Things: Revised and Expanded. This is not entirely related to the workplace, as it happens in other situations. Preface. it makes sense to warn on closing a window that has unsaved changes. When considering automation, keep in mind the unique capabilities of man as well as machine. Another drawback to automation is that people place such faith in its perfection that there are often no plans for what to do in the case of failure. The opening anecdote is of an old lady who struggled to open the drawer of a filing cabinet, who indicated "I'm sorry. Why some objects, as simple as doors, please their users while others frustrate them. This is the reason the many activities and professions require government licensing - accountants and doctors must be licensed, as must airplane pilots and automobile drivers. Each time you switch, you must remember where you were in the task you are returning to - and more, you have to keep the steps of the two tasks separated, so you don't perform a step in task A when you return to task B. Consider the flow of conversation between people - it is seldom like the contrived script of a play in which every statement flows naturally and predictably from the one before and people efficiently progress through a series of exchanges to a desired outcome. When tasks can be done in any order, or even at the same time, the checklist forces them into an unnecessary order. Test. The Design of Everyday Things (216) Design, therefore, takes on political significance. People are flexible, versatile, and creative - and machines cannot replace these qualities. Still, some people are not convinced and believe that they are capable of multitasking well. The author reiterates some of what was said in the chapter: you must understand the capabilities and capacities of human beings and design in a way that accounts for them. The author suggests that a memory slip occurs in action, whereas a memory lapse occurs prior to taking action. Machines do what they are designed to do without thinking. Definitions. The author refers to an annoying investigative technique called the "five whys" - which encourages investigators to ask "why" five times once a reason is found. the power of computer processors doubles roughly every 2 years. 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